A Good Digital Payment Ecosystem: Characteristics and Recommendations
A good digital payment ecosystem is one that enables financial inclusion, an ecosystem that allows all citizens to participate in the growth and development trajectory of the economy.
The key stakeholders in the digital payment scenario are numerous – internet service providers, payment system operators, technology providers, mobile network operators, banks and retailers form the actual players in the market. The digital transaction system allows banks to increase their customer base with lower costs and risks. According to Booz Allen estimates, banks can reduce cash logistics by 10% through use of cashless payment transactions. Telecom and internet service providers gain by increasing customer retention, higher revenues through value added services etc. Retailers and service providers benefit through fast access to a larger base of customers, better payment collections etc. There is a synergy between the digital world and the financial world that needs to be exploited successfully to give the final benefit to the consumer. However, at the same time the government and regulators of banking, telecommunications, payment systems, competition issues, anti-money laundering, all form the environment in which the digital payments business model functions.
Given that the business of digital transactions is new and unfamiliar, governments and regulators tend to be cautious about allowing innovations that may disrupt financial stability of the economy. As has been emphasized in the previous sections of this paper, while on one hand financial inclusion is the stated objective of governments, and new technology has been widely accepted as a tool for financial inclusion, regulatory and supervisory concerns have inhibited the development of digital payments in many countries, including India. For a new product market to develop, it is important that the enabling environment be one which blends legal and regulatory openness and certainty – openness will allow innovation to flourish while certainty will give confidence to entrepreneurs to make investments. Thus the markets which develop fastest are those which are in environments that are moving towards greater openness and greater certainty. The most crucial issue here is to ensure that the market remains open and competitive for entrepreneurs to take up new business models. The key characteristics have been mentioned and discussed at various points in the preceding sections. These are: 소액결제현금화
1. Ensure entry by ensuring a high degree of inclusiveness in types of service providers, ensuring a level playing field, and also ensure that both large and small players can enter the industry.
Inclusiveness: Both banking and non-banking entities should be encouraged to enter the industry.
The basic concerns of regulators in the financial sphere revolve around (i) maintaining financial stability, (ii) raising economic efficiency, (iii) increasing access to financial services, (iv) ensuring financial integrity, and (v) ensuring consumer protection, and (vi) ensure rapid accessibility of such services for the masses with heterogeneous requirements.
Given the focus of financial regulators to ensure financial stability, it is but natural for them to have a bank focus. But, disruption to financial stability deals with systemically important payment systems, and not retail payment systems, especially of micro-magnitude. This distinctiveness of retail and micro-amounts should be well understood to avoid stifling innovation that has the potential to help the masses of the country. Consequently there is no need to limit this industry only to the banks.